Staff notation is the standard way all instruments can use to write and notate music. The staff consists of five lines. The lines and spaces created by the staff are note value place holders. These lines have no relation to guitar or bass tablature at all so don't get the two music systems confused.
Below is a basic blank staff. Notice how there are five lines that comprise the staff.
Since a single staff is capable of representing only so many notes, staves can be separated into different clefs to extend the note range. For guitar and bass you only need to worry about two types of clefs. The Treble Clef for guitar and the Bass Clef for bass. Piano's use both clefs at the same time because the range of a piano is a lot wider than that of a guitar or bass. Clef symbols are placed at the very beginning of the staff allowing you to quckly identify what type of staff you are working with.
The Treble Clef looks like this:
and here's the symbol for the Bass Clef:
If you are playing guitar or reading from the Treble Clef, you need to know what each line and space represents on that clef. The staff begins just above middle C. The spaces from the bottom to the top of the Treble Clef are the notes F, A, C, E. They happen to spell the word face which makes it easier to remember.
The lines on the Treble Clef from the bottom to the top are E, G, B, D, F.
When you put those together you can see how the musical alphabet ascends on the staff starting with F. F, E, G, A, B, C, D, E, F
The Bass Clef works similar to the Treble Clef but the notes are adjusted to where the staff begins below middle C. The notes that make up the spaces on the Bass Clef from bottom to top are A, C, E, G.
The lines on the Bass Clef from bottom to top are G, B, D, F, A.
When you put those together you can see how the musical alphabet ascends on the bass staff starting with G. G, A, B, C, D, E, F, G, A
Even though the staff consists of only five lines you can continue notes above or below the staff. When you extend notes above or below the staff you can write in new lines. These lines are called ledger lines. There's only one ledger line that separates the Treble and Bass Clefs and that is Middle C. However, as a guitarist or bassist you will only typically ever read off of the Treble or Bass clef so ledger lines can extend as high or low as needed for the music and the instrument.
Below are Treble Clef notes extended below and above the staff by two notes.
Here are the Bass Clef notes extended below and above the staff by two notes.